Mapping is finding locations for the tuning’s target notes.  Mapping is similar to setting the temperament, but instead of a temperament in the middle octave or two of the piano, this system’s target notes are:  A0, A1, A2, D3, E3, A3, D4, E4, A4, A5, A6, and A7.

The Littau-Conrad Spreadsheet (LC) uses a target setting for every A on the piano – including A0 and A7! –  to create a tuning.

The mini targets: (D3, E3, D4, & E4) can also be used with the LC spreadsheet.

Those mini targets are used to adjust the shape of the curves between the As in the midrange to better fit the tuning to the unique scaling of the piano.

The Ds and Es determine the widths of the 5ths, the prime and subprime octaves, and for balancing the prime 5ths.

Mapping starts with A4 @ A440 and with each mapped note, is expanded outward from A4.

As each note is mapped, using both aural and electronic means across the entire keyboard, the sound of the overall piano tuning can be heard as the piano is being mapped.

When the targets are found, the mapping is complete.  The target notes are then entered into the Littau-Conrad spreadsheet and a tuning is created that will pass thru all the targets.

Here, mapping is carried out by the technician, who relies on personal judgment and expertise to determine the optimal sound for each piano. These decisions stem from the technician’s auditory and technical abilities, rather than merely following a generic suggestion from an application.